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Water FAQs

Review Frequently Asked Questions

Short answer: Dissolved organic material.

Long Answer:

The City of Palm Coast Utility Department utilizes two different treatment processes to treat the water for the Palm Coast community. The first treatment method is utilized by Water Treatment Plant #1. It is a conventional lime softening facility. This plant is fed by shallow aquifer wells. These wells average 60 to 90 ft. in depth.  As rainfall percolates through the ground and into this shallow aquifer the groundwater picks up minerals (mostly calcium) and color from the organic deposits in the underlying geologic strata. The shallow aquifer groundwater is pumped to the treatment facility where it undergoes chemical precipitation treatment, filtration, and disinfection. The treatment process removes approximately 75% of the calcium and some of the color. The finished water averages 12 color units (the secondary standard for color is 15 units). This color is most noticeable in a large volume with a light-colored background such as toilets and bathtubs and white sinks. 

The second treatment method is utilized by Water Plants #2 and #3. These two plants are Nanofiltration or membrane-softening reverse osmosis treatment plants. These plants do essentially the same thing that Water Plant #1 does (softens water – and removes hardness) but utilize physical removal instead of chemical precipitation methods. The finished watercolor level leaving these plants average 9 color units. The Utility department attempts to minimize the color in the finished water by not utilizing the higher-color wells concurrently, but during drought and high-demand periods higher color levels are unavoidable. The color in our drinking water is not a health hazard – it is strictly an aesthetic issue. The potable water serving the Palm Coast community meets all applicable Federal and State standards for drinking water and is perfectly safe to drink.

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Yes, the water in Palm Coast, like in many cities, is subject to regulation and monitoring to ensure its safety for drinking. The Palm Coast Utility Department reports to state and federal regulatory agencies such as the Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The city is responsible and held accountable for maintaining water quality standards and conducting regular testing to ensure compliance with safety regulations.

The Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) sets national standards for drinking water to protect public health.  These standards are enforced in our state by the Department of Environmental Protection (DEP).  On a sampling schedule that DEP provides, we submit water quality test results to DEP demonstrating compliance with the safe drinking water standards. In addition, if there were ever a serious water quality problem, we are mandated to notify DEP immediately, as well as our customers, and work collaboratively with DEP to take prudent and corrective action. 

The Utility Department has the primary responsibility of safeguarding the public drinking water supply from any existing or potential contamination. The city is responsible for ensuring that the water supplied to customers meets regulatory standards for quality and safety. This involves treating the water at treatment plants, monitoring water quality throughout the distribution system, and conducting regular testing to ensure compliance with health-based standards.

The responsibility of a city's water supply typically ends at the point where the water enters the customer's property or home. This point is often referred to as the "water meter" or the "point of delivery." Beyond this point, the responsibility for the water supply shifts to the property owner or resident. Additionally, the installation of any device such as water softeners, or whole house filter systems, etc. inside a customer's home is not the responsibility of the Utility Department for maintaining the water quality inside the home.

Home treatment units may be effective at improving a particular taste or odor preference. If the treatment system is not maintained properly, bacteria can grow in the unit and contaminate the water. If you choose to purchase a home water treatment unit, carefully read its product information to understand what you are buying. Be certain to follow the manufacturer's instructions for operation and maintenance, especially changing the filter regularly. 

When there is a loss in pressure in the water system due to a main break or other issue, it is recommended by the Department of Health to issue a precautionary boil water advisory to all affected customers. We will work to fix the issue and analyze water samples, which usually takes around 24-48 hours. Once the water is safe to drink again, we will notify you with a rescind notice. If the advisory continues beyond 48 hours, a new door tag will be issued.

Fish have gills to breathe in water. The gills provide for direct transfer of chemicals, such as oxygen, between the water and the bloodstream. Chlorine in water can quickly affect fish because there is no other barrier to filter out the chlorine. Chlorine and chloramines are toxic to fish. This also includes turtles, reptiles, and amphibians. For this reason, the disinfectant must be removed before adding water to fishbowls and aquariums. Consult your local pet store for the appropriate neutralizing chemical. Ensure that the product says that it will neutralize "Chloramines" and "Chlorine".

Yes, drinking water is generally safe for cats and dogs. it's essential to ensure that they have access to clean, fresh water always and to monitor their hydration, especially during hot weather or periods of increased activity. Regularly clean your pets' water bowls to prevent the growth of bacteria and algae, which can contaminate the water and potentially make your pets sick.

The disinfectant in drinking water will eventually dissipate even in a closed container. If that container contained bacteria before filling up with tap water, the bacteria may continue to grow once the disinfectant has dissipated. Some experts believe that water could be stored for up to six months before needing to be replaced. Refrigeration will help slow the bacterial growth.  In general, when the chlorine residual is no longer present in your drinking water, it should not be consumed.  The rate at which the chlorine residual will dissipate in a container is dependent on the exposure to bacteria and temperature.   

The most common cause of black specks in tap water is the deterioration of rubber materials used in plumbing fixtures.  Gaskets and O-rings can degrade over time and the pieces can collect in toilet tanks and around faucets. Toilet tank valves and gaskets are common sources. If they are made of neoprene, nitriles, isoprene, and natural rubber materials they tend to degrade when in contact with the chlorine or chloramines in the tap water. Chloramines cause a more rapid breakdown with cracking and loss of elasticity and strength. You need to look for materials that are resistant to chloramines such as silicon-based rubber, synthetic polymers or fluorocarbon, or copper and nylon flex connections. The products should be labeled with explanations that they are more resistant to chlorine and chloramines. 

The average hardness of the drinking water in Palm Coast is about 100 mg/L (or expressed in different units, about 6 grains per gallon). In Palm Coast, since the water is soft, dishwashing and clothes washing require less detergent than in cities that have hard water. Soft water is 75mg/L or less. Hard water is 150 -300 mg/L or more.

Hard Water Defined

Hard water contains high levels of dissolved calcium, magnesium, and other mineral salts such as iron. The greater the amount of dissolved minerals in the water, the harder it is.

Total hardness is measured in grains per gallon (mpg) or parts per million (ppm). or (mg/ l) The American Society of Engineers' water hardness classification table breaks it down this way.

Soft: 0 to 3.5 gpg - 0 to 60 ppm -0-75 mg/l

Moderate: 3.6 to 7 gpg - 61 to 120 ppm City of Palm Coast

Hard: 7.1 to 10.5 gpg - 121 to 180 ppm-150 -300 mg/l

Very Hard: More than 10.5 gpg - more than 180 ppm-300 mg/l or higher

No, the city does not add fluoride to the water. There are very low levels of fluoride that are naturally present in Palm Coast drinking water. The average amount of fluoride in our water is about 0.061 mg/L (almost non-detectable). This is well below the maximum limit of 4.0mg/L.

The trace amount (0.061 mg/L) of fluoride that is present in Palm Coast drinking water is considered inadequate for dental protection purposes. Individuals must provide their supplements if they so desire. It is suggested that you consult your dentist.

Monochloramine is used for disinfection in water treatment for several reasons:

  1. Longer Lasting Residual: Monochloramine tends to persist longer in the water distribution system compared to free chlorine. This means it can provide ongoing disinfection as water travels through pipes, helping to maintain water quality over time and prevent microbial regrowth.
  2. Reduced Disinfection Byproducts (DBPs): Chlorine can react with naturally occurring organic matter in water to form disinfection byproducts (DBPs), some of which are potentially harmful to human health. Monochloramine typically produces fewer DBPs than free chlorine, helping to mitigate health risks associated with DBP exposure.
  3. Stable Disinfection: Monochloramine is less reactive than free chlorine and is therefore less likely to interact with organic compounds in the water to form unwanted byproducts or to be consumed by other reactions before reaching its intended disinfection target. This stability ensures consistent disinfection efficacy.
  4. Control of Nitrification: In systems with ammonia present in the water supply, using monochloramine can help control nitrification, which is the biological oxidation of ammonia to nitrate by certain bacteria. By using monochloramine, ammonia remains in a less biologically available form, reducing the risk of nitrification and maintaining water quality.
  5. Taste and Odor Control: Monochloramine often imparts less taste and odor to the water compared to free chlorine, which can sometimes produce objectionable tastes and odors.

Overall, the choice between using monochloramine and chlorine for disinfection depends on various factors such as water quality, regulatory requirements, distribution system characteristics, and treatment objectives. While monochloramine offers several advantages, it's essential to carefully consider these factors to determine the most appropriate disinfection strategy for a particular water system.

Chlorine dissipates from water relatively quickly. Pitchers can be filled with water and stored in a refrigerator overnight. Most if not all the chlorine will be gone by the next day. Anthracite (coal) filters can also be utilized. Anthracite removes chlorine effectively. Be sure to adhere to the filter manufacturer's recommendations for maintenance and replacement. 

Sometimes you may notice an unpleasant odor coming from your tap, but it's important to note that this is usually caused by the sink drain rather than the water itself. Over time, debris can build up in the u-shaped pipe under your sink, leading to odors that can affect the water coming out of your tap. To determine the source of the odor, try filling a clean glass halfway with tap water and taking it to a separate room or outside to smell it. If the odor disappears, the problem is likely with your plumbing rather than the water supply. However, if you still detect the odor, it may be a sign that your water heater needs attention. A possible reason for the hot water being the cause is the water heater is too big for hot water being used, or the water has been stagnant for a long time due to a home being left vacant. To fix this issue, flush the water lines to bring in fresh water and add chlorine to the system. When heating the water, hydrogen gas can be released. If there are any sulfur compounds present, this can result in the formation of Hydrogen Sulfide, which causes a foul odor similar to rotten eggs. In many cases, replacing the standard magnesium or aluminum anode rod with an aluminum/zinc alloy anode can effectively solve the issue. This is because pure aluminum anodes tend to emit a foul odor. Zinc is an important component in the alloy. In addition, sulfur-reducing bacteria can liberate hydrogen sulfide and cause black water. A solution is to increase the temperature of the hot water heater temporarily to above 160 degrees. This will destroy the sulfur bacteria. The normal temperature for water heaters is 120 °-125° 

Here is a general guideline of how it is done. Consult your water heater manual for specifics:

  1. Get a hose. One with a rubber gasket in it is best, to help avoid leakage at the hose connection.
  2. Turn off the power to the water heater. This is not optional because you can burn up your water heater if you do not shut it off.
  3. Turn off the water going into the water heater. Otherwise, it will continue to be replaced as it drains.
  4. Let the tank cool. How long this takes depends on the size of the tank, the amount of insulation, and the temperature of the water in the tank when you start. Some people only need to wait a few hours. Others wait overnight.
  5. Connect the hose to the drain valve, which is a spigot at the bottom of the hot water tank and run the other end someplace where it’s reasonable to let the water drain. Since the water will have sediment in it, you would be better off not draining it into your garden or any place where you have plant material, which might be sensitive to calcium.
  6. Turn on a hot water faucet somewhere in your home. It will act as a relief valve and hasten the flow of the water from the drain spigot.
  7. Turn on the drain spigot. Let it run until the tank is empty. Most of these spigots are angled and poorly designed to remove the sediment--remember, they are designed by the hot water tank manufacturers, who are much more interested in sales than good hot water heater maintenance!
  8. Turn the water to the tank back on while the drain spigot is still open to remove any remaining sediment. Once the water runs clear from the end of the hose, you can close the valve to allow the tank to heat up.
  9. Shut the hot water faucet off (the one you opened in your house).
  10. When the tank is full, turn the water heater back on.

The following video link demonstrates these steps. https://youtu.be/qqaehhGYV_I

The water plants have a minimum level of service standard to not go below 50 psi leaving the plants. If you’re experiencing low water pressure, first things you should check could have the simplest solutions. Locate the valve in your home and see if it is open all the way, then do the same with the valve by your meter. If you’ve recently purchased your home and it’s plagued with low water pressure, consult with neighbors to find out whether the issue affects the entire community. In situations where your neighbors have good pressure, but you don’t, the culprit may be inside your home. 

  1. A poorly performing faucet or showerhead is likely to have a clogged aerator. Unscrew the aerator and look for signs of grit or buildup. If the aerator needs to be cleaned, soak it in a vinegar-and-water solution. If that doesn’t work, buy a replacement aerator
  2. Check for any leaks in your pipes and have them repaired.

Other causes

The city could be flushing hydrants. Fire hydrants can develop build-up from lack of use; so, cities typically flush them semi-annually to ensure they’re clear. This can cause serious, though temporary, water pressure issues in the houses down the line.

 Contact your municipal water supplier to see if there is a main break in your area.

If you recently moved from an area where the water contained very few naturally occurring minerals, or you are accustomed to a certain type of source water, such as a well or surface water supply, your water might taste different due to the minerals it contains. The taste of domestic drinking water varies with its source. It could be that you’re simply not used to the new taste yet.

Stains can be caused by corrosion products from the distribution system or household plumbing, old water heaters or washing machines, or the type of detergent or bleach used. This condition can often be solved by simply flushing the water lines or water heater or changing the type of detergent or bleach used.

  • Air Bubbles: Cloudiness in ice cubes can sometimes be due to trapped air bubbles within the water. When water freezes into ice cubes, air bubbles can become trapped, causing the ice to appear cloudy. This is typically harmless and is often more noticeable in homemade ice cubes. 
  • Clean ice cube trays: Regularly clean and sanitize ice cube trays to prevent the buildup of debris or mineral deposits.
  • Allow tap water to sit: Allowing tap water to sit for a few minutes before freezing can help release any dissolved gases, reducing the likelihood of air bubbles in ice cubes.

If you notice a pink residue in your bathroom, it's probably not due to poor water quality. Instead, it's likely caused by airborne bacteria that naturally occur and can be influenced by your cleaning habits. These bacteria can create a pink or dark gray film on moist surfaces such as shower heads, toilet bowls, bathtubs, sink drains, and tile. To prevent this issue, try to keep problem areas as dry as possible by avoiding closed shower doors, keeping the shower curtain open, and not letting water stand around drains. Additionally, make sure your bathroom is well-ventilated. However, even with these precautions, the pink film may still return within a few weeks to three months. Unfortunately, once it appears, it can be challenging to remove completely.

  • To address the issue of orange or pink material in your shower and bath, consider the following steps:
  • Regular Cleaning: Clean bathroom surfaces regularly with appropriate cleaning agents to remove soap scum, dirt, and organic matter that can serve as a food source for bacteria.
  • Improve Ventilation: Ensure adequate ventilation in the bathroom to reduce humidity levels and discourage bacterial growth. Use exhaust fans or open windows to promote air circulation.
  • Use Disinfectants: Use disinfectants or antibacterial cleaners specifically designed to target Serratia marcescens bacteria to effectively eliminate colonies and prevent regrowth.

In a drinking water system, the water travels under pressure. Occasionally, during maintenance work, air may become trapped inside these pipes and when the pipe is returned to service, the water pressure causes the air to dissolve into the water. Then, when the water comes out of the tap, it is no longer under pressure and the air that was dissolved in the water, comes out of the solution forming very tiny bubbles. This causes the water to look milky. When poured into a glass, the milky water will start to clear from the bottom up - with the clear water slowly moving upward. Often, when the water is clearing, the water will effervesce like pop. Usually, this milky appearance is only temporary, and the water will soon return to normal. The water is still safe to drink.

  1. Etching: Etching occurs when the surface of glassware or dishes becomes permanently scratched or pitted, giving it a dull or cloudy appearance. Etching is often caused by a combination of factors, including high water temperature, prolonged exposure to harsh detergents, and abrasive cleaning methods.
    • Solution: To minimize etching, avoid using excessively hot water settings in your dishwasher and opt for gentler wash cycles when possible. Use dishwasher detergents that are specifically labeled as gentle or phosphate-free to reduce the risk of etching. Additionally, try to avoid overloading your dishwasher, as crowding dishes can increase the likelihood of damage during the wash cycle.
  2. Incorrect Detergent Dosage: Using too much or too little dishwasher detergent can affect the cleaning performance and result in poor wash results, including staining or etching of dishes.
    • Solution: Follow the manufacturer's instructions for loading your dishwasher and using dishwasher detergent. Use the recommended amount of detergent for your dishwasher model and adjust the dosage based on the hardness of your water and the level of soiling on your dishes.
  3. Old or Worn-Out Dishwasher Components: Over time, components of your dishwasher, such as the spray arms, filters, or seals, can become worn out or clogged with debris, affecting the dishwasher's cleaning performance.

If you are experiencing staining or corrosion on your silverware, try separating knives from other silverware. Some knives have a high carbon content that can cause surface rust on other utensils. It is best to hand wash and dry fine China and real silverware to prevent any damage.

It's common to see mold, mildew, or mineral deposits at the water and air interface in your toilet bowl. These rings are caused by bacteria, fungus, and mold spores that are typically found in the air, not in the water. These organisms thrive in wet environments and quickly reproduce, resulting in a ring formation. 

  1. Mold or Mildew Growth: In moist and humid environments, such as bathrooms, mold or mildew can thrive. If there's any organic matter present in the water or on the surface of the toilet bowl, it can promote the growth of mold or mildew, resulting in dark stains or rings.
  2. Bacterial Growth: Sometimes, bacteria is introduced through other means that can colonize the toilet bowl, forming dark-colored rings or stains. This is more likely to occur if the toilet isn't cleaned regularly.
  3. Another possible cause for the black stains in your toilet bowl could be the breakdown of washers and flappers due to chlorine exposure. 

To address this issue, the following steps are recommended:

  • Regular Cleaning: Using a toilet bowl cleaner or a mixture of vinegar and baking soda, regularly clean the toilet bowl to remove any buildup of minerals, mold, or bacteria. Scrubbing the affected area with a toilet brush should help eliminate the black ring.
  • Increased Ventilation: Improving ventilation in the bathroom can help reduce moisture levels and discourage mold or mildew growth. Consider using exhaust fans or opening windows to promote air circulation and prevent dampness.
  • Change Toilet flapper: Some drop-in bowl cleaners are also hard on the rubber component of a flapper. As the flapper deteriorates it allows leakage. Although it is not something many of us think of as needing replacement on a routine basis, in general, a toilet flapper should be replaced every three to five years or as needed.

The black mold that appears in our customers’ bathroom and kitchen faucets is not found in the drinking water. Instead, it is caused by airborne mold spores that are naturally occurring in our moist, sub-tropical climate. It has been observed that black mold may be growing on the aerator attached to the end of faucets. To prevent this, regular cleaning is recommended by unscrewing the aerator from the faucet and cleaning it with a mild bleach solution. Additionally, older faucets use a generic black rubber washer called buna-n to prevent dripping and leaking. Taking apart the faucet and removing the washer can cause the black residue from the rubber to stick on your hands. This type of washer was used for many years and may still be used today in some faucets. If you have the old black rubber washer, it is recommended to replace it with a red rubber/neoprene type washer as disintegration is often caused by disinfectants used in the City's water supply.

Numerous customers have reported multiple issues with their SharkBite connector hoses. The most notable problem seems to be the occurrence of black flakes, specks, chunks, or slime in the hot water supply. SharkBite customers have stated that black residue has been found in their bathroom and kitchen sinks, bathtubs, and showerheads. Additionally, there have been complaints regarding low water pressure, leaking, clogged faucets, and damage to home appliances and fixtures. 

These white particles are probably pieces of the dip tube from your water heater. Several brands of water heaters were made using a dip tube that disintegrates over time. The dip tube carries the cold water from the top of the water heater to the bottom, where the cold water is heated. Over time, the dip tube disintegrates, and the white dip tube particles are carried through the household pipes. If the particles are large enough, they are caught in the strainers of the sink faucets or showerheads. Since it only affects hot water, these particles will only be found in places where hot water travels; so, the toilet and automatic ice maker will not contain these particles if indeed they are from the dip tube.

 

Orthophosphate is commonly used as a corrosion inhibitor in drinking water treatment. It helps to form a protective layer on the inside of pipes and plumbing fixtures, which reduces the leaching of metals such as lead and copper into the water supply. This is particularly important in older infrastructure where lead pipes or lead solder may have been used. When used appropriately and within regulatory limits, orthophosphate is considered safe for drinking water. It is approved for use by regulatory agencies such as the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and is widely used in water treatment facilities around the world. Water treatment facilities regularly monitor water quality and orthophosphate levels to ensure compliance with regulatory standards. This includes conducting routine testing and analysis to verify the effectiveness of treatment processes and confirm that orthophosphate levels are within acceptable limits.

The simple answer is yes. 
The criteria for testing lead and copper in drinking water are typically based on regulatory standards set by government agencies responsible for public health and environmental protection. In the United States, for example, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) establishes guidelines and regulations regarding lead and copper in drinking water under the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA). Here are the key criteria and guidelines for testing lead and copper: The LCR specifies sampling protocols for monitoring lead and copper levels in drinking water every three years. This includes instructions on where and how to collect water samples, as well as the frequency of sampling. Samples are typically collected from taps in homes or buildings served by the public water system.

Lead and copper can enter the drinking water, not only from the source, but can leach from the homeowner’s own plumbing and fixtures.  Through its testing processes, the utility must demonstrate that its water is stable and does not promote the leaching of these materials into the water from household plumbing systems.  The treatment processes utilized in Palm Coast do produce stable drinking water, and all the sample results taken for lead and copper from designated homes in Palm Coast have historically been below the minimum laboratory detection limit. In other words, are well within accepted safe levels for drinking water.

Palm Coast's Water Quality Technicians regularly flush fire hydrants throughout the distribution system to test the levels of chlorine and ph. During the flushing process, you may see a fire hydrant wide open, allowing water to flow down the street. This is done to move water through the pipelines at a faster rate, clear stagnant water, and guarantee that the water delivered to your home is of the highest quality. When the technicians flush the hydrants, the water may initially look discolored, but it clears up rather quickly. We understand that some residents may be concerned about what they perceive as "wasting water," but rest assured that we flush the lines because it is a necessary part of protecting public health.

  1. Regular Inspections: Hydrants should be inspected regularly to identify any signs of damage, corrosion, or leaks. Inspections typically include checking the condition of the hydrant body, valves, caps, and outlets. The city maintains 4,081 hydrants every year to ensure functionality and condition.
  2. Flushing: As mentioned earlier, flushing hydrants removes sediment, debris, and bacteria from the pipes, ensuring water quality and proper water flow. It's usually done periodically as part of routine maintenance. 
  3. Maintenance: Flushing fire hydrants helps to maintain their functionality. Sediment, debris, and rust can accumulate in hydrant pipes over time, which can impede water flow or contaminate the water supply. Flushing removes these obstructions and ensures that the hydrant is in good working condition.
  4. Lubrication: Lubricating hydrant parts such as valve stems and operating nuts helps to prevent corrosion and ensures smooth operation during use. This should be done during regular maintenance checks.
  5. Painting: Hydrants should be repainted periodically to protect them from corrosion and ensure they remain visible to firefighters and the public. The city has a paint schedule of painting fire hydrants every 5 years with a fresh coat of paint also indicates that the hydrant has been inspected and maintained recently.
  6. Pressure Testing: Periodic pressure testing helps to ensure that hydrants can deliver an adequate flow of water for firefighting purposes. If pressure is found to be inadequate, it may indicate a problem with the water supply system that needs to be addressed.
  7. Repairs and Replacements: Any damaged or malfunctioning parts of the hydrant should be repaired or replaced promptly to maintain its effectiveness. This includes components such as valves, caps, gaskets, and hydrant barrels.
  8. Record Keeping: Keeping detailed records of maintenance activities, inspections, and repairs is essential for tracking the condition of hydrants and ensuring compliance with regulations and standards.

The City of Palm Coast conducts bacteriological sampling twice a month, 100 total samples per month. The sampling is divided into two groups: the first group is taken in January, March, May, July, September, and November; and the second group is taken in February, April, June, August, October, and December. This ensures that the entire Palm Coast area is adequately covered during every month of sampling. Samples are taken from various points within the water distribution system to ensure comprehensive monitoring of water quality. 

Water treatment plants and distribution systems play a crucial role in ensuring that the drinking water we consume is safe. To monitor the effectiveness of the treatment processes and to ensure that contaminants are being removed, samples are collected at water treatment plants before the water enters the distribution system. Sampling is also done from various points throughout the distribution network, including dedicated sample points. Sampling locations are chosen strategically to represent different areas of the distribution system. 

Not necessarily. Check the bottled water label or contact the bottled water supplier for test results on their product. Under special circumstances, such as during an emergency, bottled water can be a good choice. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency regulates public water systems. As shown in our Water Quality Report, the City's water supply meets all federal and state EPA drinking water standards. Bottled water must comply with Food and Drug Administration regulations. Most required monitoring under the FDA regulations is not as frequent as the monitoring done on the City's water under EPA regulations.

Depending on the source of the water and the treatment process, some bottled waters may contain more or less amounts of substances than tap water. Some studies have shown that microbial growth may occur in bottled water during storage due to the lack of residual disinfectant. The City of Palm Coast combines chlorine and ammonia to form chloramines in its system to control microbial growth. This year Aquafina will begin stating on labels that its H2O comes from public water sources. And Nestlé Pure Life bottles will indicate whether the water comes from public, private, or deep well sources. Dasani acknowledges on its website, but not on the label itself, that it draws from local water.


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